Punjabi – 1. Gurmukhi – 2. Vowels

Gurmukhi has five pairs of two vowels. These pairs look and sound similar. Furthermore, each vowel has two forms. The dependent form attaches to a consonant, and it looks much like a diacritic. A consonant has a default unwritten vowel of "a", although it's not pronounced at the end of a word, so "a" has no dependent form. The independent form is used at the start of a word or after another vowel.

ਂ (ਬਿੰਦੀ) (bi~dii) and ੰ (ਟਿੱਪੀ) (t.ippii) are two diacritics, which both mark nasalisation. The latter is used whenever the space is unobtruded enough for it to be used - namely, the first, third, fifth, and sixth dependent vowels; and the first and third independent vowels.

Here are the dependent forms:
◌ (ਮੁਕਤਾ)a (mukataa)
ਾ (ਕੰਨਾ)aa (ka~naa)
ਿ (ਸਿਹਾਰੀ)i (sihaarii)
ੀ (ਬਿਹਾਰੀ)ii (bihaarii)
ੁ (ਔਂਕੜ)u (au~kar.a)
ੂ (ਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ)uu (dulae~kar.a)
ੇ (ਲਾਂਵ)ee (laa~va)
ੈ (ਦੁਲਾਵਾਂ)ae (dulaavaa~)
ੋ (ਹੋੜਾ)oo (hoor.aa)
ੌ (ਕਨੌੜਾ)au (kanaur.aa)

Here are the independent forms:
ਅ (ਮੁਕਤਾ)a (mukataa)
ਆ (ਕੰਨਾ)aa (ka~naa)
ਇ (ਸਿਹਾਰੀ)i (sihaarii)
ਈ (ਬਿਹਾਰੀ)ii (bihaarii)
ਉ (ਔਂਕੜ)u (au~kar.a)
ਊ (ਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ)uu (dulae~kar.a)
ਏ (ਲਾਂਵ)ee (laa~va)
ਐ (ਦੁਲਾਵਾਂ)ae (dulaavaa~)
ਓ (ਹੋੜਾ)oo (hoor.aa)
ਔ (ਕਨੌੜਾ)au (kanaur.aa)

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