Punjabi – 1. Gurmukhi – 3. Consonants

The first three Gurmukhi letters (ੳ, ਅ, ੲ) are merely vowel holders, of which you've learnt all the forms in the previous lesson.

Rows 2-6 are arranged by tongue position, and the letters therein by manner of pronunciation as follows: 1. Unvoiced and unaspirated. 2. Unvoiced and aspirated. 3. Voiced and unaspirated. 4. Voiced and aspirated. 5. Nasalised. The fourth one is pronounced as the first one with the following vowel getting a low tone when occuring as an initial, otherwise it is pronounced as the third one with the preceding vowel getting a high tone. ਹ (haahaa) is only "ha" as an initial, and elsewhere, it gives the preceding vowel a high tone.

Gurmukhi has two consonants (ਹ and ਰ) that have subscript versions. When written below the script, they mute the previous vowel. On the computer, you type ੍ (ਹਲਂਤ) (hala~ta) before these.

ੱ (ਅੱਧਕ) (addhaka) geminates the following consonant.

Row 1:
ConsonantPronunciation
ੳ (ਊੜਾ)vowel holder (uur.aa)
ਅ (ਐੜਾ)vowel holder (aer.aa)
ੲ (ਈੜੀ)vowel holder (iir.ii)
ਸ (ਸੱਸਾ)sa (sassaa)
ਹ (ਹਾਹਾ)ha (haahaa)

Row 2 (velars):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਕ (ਕੱਕਾ)ka (kakkaa)
ਖ (ਖੱਖਾ)kha (khakkhaa)
ਗ (ਗੱਗਾ)ga (gaggaa)
ਘ (ਘੱਗਾ)gha (ghaggaa)
ਙ (ਙੰਙਾ)nga (nga~nngaa)

Row 3 (palatals):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਚ (ਚੱਚਾ)ca (caccaa)
ਛ (ਛੱਛਾ)cha (chacchaa)
ਜ (ਜੱਜਾ)ja (jajjaa)
ਝ (ਝੱਜਾ)jha (jhajjaa)
ਞ (ਞੰਞਾ)nya (nya~nnyaa)

Row 4 (retroflexes):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਟ (ਟੈਂਕਾ)t.a (t.ae~kaa)
ਠ (ਠੱਠਾ)t.ha (t.hatt.haa)
ਡ (ਡੱਡਾ)d.a (d.add.aa)
ਢ (ਢੱਡਾ)d.h (d.hadd.aa)
ਣ (ਣਾਣਾ)n.a (n.ann.aa)

Row 5 (dentals):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਤ (ਤੱਤਾ)ta (t̪attaa)
ਥ (ਥੱਥਾ)tha (thatthaa)
ਦ (ਦੱਦਾ)da (daddaa)
ਧ (ਧੱਦਾ)dha (dhaddaa)
ਨ (ਨੱਨਾ)na (nannaa)

Row 6 (bilabials):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਪ (ਪੱਪਾ)pa (pappaa)
ਫ (ਫੱਫਾ)pha (phapphaa)
ਬ (ਬੱਬਾ)ba (babbaa)
ਭ (ਭੱਬਾ)bha (bhabbaa)
ਮ (ਮੱਮਾ)ma (mammaa)

Row 7:
ConsonantPronunciation
ਯ (ਯੱਯਾ)ya (yayyaa)
ਰ (ਰਾਰਾ)ra (raaraa)
ਲ (ਲੱਲਾ)la (lallaa)
ਵ (ਵੱਵਾ)va (vavvaa)
ੜ (ੜਾੜਾ)r.a (r.aar.aa)

Row 8 (foreign sounds):
ConsonantPronunciation
ਸ਼ (ਸੱਸੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)sha (sassee paera bi~dii)
ਖ਼ (ਖੱਖੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)k.ha (khakkhee paera bi~dii)
ਗ਼ (ਗੱਗੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)g.a (gaggee paera bi~dii)
ਜ਼ (ਜੱਜੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)za (jajjee paera bi~dii)
ਫ਼ (ਫੱਫੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)fa (phapphee paera bi~dii)
ਲ਼ (ਲੱਲੇ ਪੈਰ ਬਿੰਦੀ)l.a (lallee paera bi~dii)

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