Punjabi – 2. Vocabulary – 2. Personal Pronouns

The oblique form is not as difficult as it sounds. It's used before postpositions, which we will learn about later. Here are the first person singular pronouns:
ਮੈਂ (mae~)(pn.) I (subjective) (example: ਮੈਂ ਤੈਨੂੰ ਪਿਆਰ ਕਰਦਾ। (mae~ taenuu~ pi'aara karadaa|, "I love you."))
ਮੈਨੂੰ (maenuu~)(pn.) me, to me (objective) (example: ਤੁਸੀਂ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਪਿਆਰ ਕਰਦੇ। (tusii~ maenuu~ pi'aara karadee|, "You love me."))
ਮੇਰਾ (meeraa)(pn.) my (possessive) (example: ਇਹ ਮੇਰੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਹੈ। (iha meerii gad.dii hae|, "This is my car."))
ਮੇਰੇ (meeree)(pn.) me (oblique) (example: ਮੇਰੇ ਵੱਲ ਦੇਖੋ! (meeree valla deekhoo!, "Look at me!"))
ਮੈਥੋਂ (maethoo~)(pn.) from me (example: ਮੌਥੋਂ ਜਵਾਬ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਵੇਗਾ। (maethoo~ jawaaba nahii~ aaveegaa|, "You won't get a response from me."))
Here are the first person plural pronouns:
ਅਸੀਂ(pn.) we (subjective)
ਸਾਨੂੰ(pn.) us, to us (objective)
ਸਾਡਾ(pn.) our (possessive)
ਸਾਡੇ(pn.) us (oblique)
ਸਾਥੋਂ(pn.) from us
Here are the second person singular pronouns:
ਤੁੰ(pn.) you (singular, subjective)
ਤੈਨੂੰ(pn.) you, to you (singular, objective)
ਤੇਰਾ(pn.) your (singular, possessive)
ਤੇਰੇ(pn.) you (singular, oblique)
ਤੈਥੋਂ(pn.) from you (singular)
In Punjabi, the plural is used to show respect to someone, and thus, the second person plural can either literally be plural, or it may merely be showing respect. Respected people are grammatically plural in general, so this applies to more than just the second person pronouns, but the respected people themselves merely use the first person singular.
ਤੁਸੀਂ(pn.) you (plural/formal, subjective)
ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ(pn.) you, to you (plural/formal, objective)
ਤੁਹਾਡਾ(pn.) your (plural/formal, possessive)
ਤੁਹਾਡੇ(pn.) you (plural/formal, oblique)
ਤੁਹਾਥੋਂ(pn.) from you (plural/formal)
Many pronouns in Punjabi have both personal and impersonal senses. Note how ਉਹ (uha) collectively means "he, she, they, that, those", but the singular and plural senses have different declensions. It's a far demonstrative pronoun, which means that it means "that", and its "near" equivalent is ਇਹ (iha), which means "this", and functions exactly like ਉਹ (uha), except for the difference in meaning that it refers to near things or people. When the third person has completed carrying out an action on an object, it takes the postposition ਨੇ (nee), e.g. ਉਸਨੇ ਇਹ ਬਣਾਇਆ। (usanee iha ban.aa'i'aa|, "He made this.") and the same applies equally to third person nouns, e.g. ਜੀਵਨ ਨੇ ਪਕੌੜੇ ਪਕਾਏ। (jiivana nee pakaur.ee pakaa'ee|, "Jeevan made pakoras."). This is called the "perfective ergative".
ਉਹ(pn.) he, she, they, that, those (subjective)
ਉਸਨੂੰ, ਉਹਨੂੰ(pn.) him, her, to him, to her (objective)
ਉਸਦਾ, ਉਹਦਾ(pn.) his, her (possessive)
ਉਸ, ਉਹਦੇ(pn.) him, her (oblique)
ਉਸ ਤੋਂ, ਉਹਦੇ ਤੋਂ(pn.) from him, from her
ਉਸਨੇ, ਉਹਨੇ(pn.) he, she (perfective ergative)
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ(pn.) them, to them (objective)
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦਾ(pn.) their (possessive)
ਉਹਨਾਂ(pn.) them (oblique)
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਤੋਂ(pn.) from them
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ(pn.) they (perfective ergative)
Here are some more third person pronouns:
ਇਹ(pn.) this person, these people, this, these (subjective; declines like ਉਹ, except ਉ is ਇ)
ਜੋ(pn.) the same (relative; declines like ਉਹ, except ਉ is ਜਿ)
ਸੋ(pn.) the same again (relative; declines like ਜੋ)
ਕੌਣ(pn.) who (interrogative; declines like ਉਹ, except ਉ is ਕਿ)
ਕੋਈ(pn.) someone (indefinite; declines like ਕੌਣ, except ਕਿਸ is ਕਿਸੇ and there is no ਕਿਹ variant); (determiner) some (before a count noun)
ਆਪ (aapa) is the reflexive pronoun, but it can also be an honorific form of "you".
ਆਪ(pn.) oneself; you (honorific)
ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ(pn.) oneself (objective)
ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਦਾ(pn.) one's own (possessive)
ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ(pn.) oneself (oblique)
ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਤੋਂ(pn.) from oneself
ਆਪਣਾ(pn.) one's own (possessive)
ਆਪਾਂ(pn.) we (subjective)

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